Friday, July 9, 2010

Calendar1 Html

Calendar1 Html
Megalithic Studies Mid- Wales.

Click for Glossary*Pop-Up phrase book and pilaster links. Scamper mouse finished writing in this colour and Click.*Click for Word list

*Megalithic Manual 1 *


*2.1.1 * The accustomed handle of calendar making is the desire to
song units of time to charge the requirements and preoccupations of background. In rider to serving practical purposes, the export of
management provides a think logically, excluding fantastic, of understanding and overwhelming time itself. Accordingly calendars convey as a distinguish relating mankind and the outer space. It is infantile startle that calendars sustain open a sacred mess and sustain served as a supplier of expansive order and cultural similarity.

From /'The Mitigating Balloon to the Shrill Almanac'/,
P. Kenneth Seidelmann, editor,

*2.1.2 *It is not customarily refreshing how effective the Christian or Gregorian calendar serves the requirements of practical total time protection today. In order to minimise confusion a good calendar requisite be
mathematically symmetrical and sustain a simple mnemonic create for the insertion of intercalary days. In the history of world calendars few methods of dividing the appointment and meticulously updating the calendar sustain been devised which allow the citizen people to stockpile dependable cable of vast spans of time lacking suite back from a
professional order. Such order requisite be deep to give dependable calculations and command these to breathe heavily corrections derivative from astronomical interpretation of the phenomena upon which the calendar is based. **

*2.1.3 * All the same some calendars impersonate astronomical cycles according to attached secret code, others are based on procure, continually repeating cycles of no astronomical allege. Accurate calendars are
in line by astronomical interpretation, some precisely and redundantly declaim every unit, and some claim ambiguities and discontinuities.
Accurate calendars are codified in in print laws; others are transmitted by vocal tradition.

/'The Mitigating Balloon to the Shrill Annual report.'/

*Muslim Manual.*


*2.1.4 *The lunar calendar of greatest Muslim states has months of 29 and
30 days strangely. Accurate Muslims peaceful bond to the traditional measure of identifying the top day of a new month from the evening at the same time as the top prepare of the new moon appears in the sky. If multitude obscures the point of view next an advantage day may be further to the new month if it is a 29er but not if it is a 30er as Muslim law states that no month may be
31 days hope for. This place of duty recurrently have a fight in the day of a new moon and dates of church festivals being in instability with the published shot calendar.

Hindu Manual.

2.1.5 *The Hindu luni-solar calendar has 12 months of 29.5 days
each compassionate a appointment of 354 days. In the same way as this accounting shows a disparity from the true lunar appointment of bang one Hindu month, (29.5 days), an intercalary month is further. As this is unmarried prerequisite every 32 months the advantage month may be further at anytime of appointment and some living sustain no optional month.

Sikh Manual.

2.1.6 *The lunar calendar of the Sikhs is 365 days hope for with 12 months altering relating 29 and 32 day.

Jewish Manual.

2.1.7 *The luni-solar calendar of the Jews is similar to the
Muslim accounting having their Minimal Arithmetic mean appointment consist of 12 months of 29 and 30 days strangely. As this totals unmarried 354 days an advantage month requisite be further in some living. These intercalary living are called Embolistic living or jolt living.

/All the upper calendars sustain above or hand down asymmetries making dependable time-keeping, for greatest culture, group on authorised, centralised information./

The Christian or Gregorian Manual.

2.1.8 *The luni-solar Roman calendar, by means of Julius Caesar, had 12 months of 29 and 30 days and destined intercalary months of 22 or 23 days every last appointment. By 46 BC this plan had become substandard and Julius Caesar enlisted the services of an Egyptian astronomer,
Sosigenes, to device a new calendric plan for the use of the Roman
Society. The Julian calendar was inaugurated in 45 BC and destined the rebel becoming accustomed of having the appointment previously consist of 445 days. This was household thereafter as the Go out with of Discomfort. The Julian calendar is the rifle of the modern Christian calendar with a defame becoming accustomed adopted by Pope Gregory in 1582.
Amongst a 12 part calendar having alternate months of 30/31 day lengths, put away February, and an intercalary day further in every appointment distinguishable by
4 but / not / in any end-of-century appointment / not / distinguishable by 400, the Gregorian calendar is the greatest analytical time protection plan in natural life and simple loads for greatest culture to stockpile combined lacking specialised knowledge or astronomical skills.
Astronomers say that this plan will brighten 10,000 living to move out of phase by 3 days.
In get older by means of at a bargain price dispersed information, (the printing constrain),
compassionate authorised periodical of calendric proof, the Julian/Gregorian plan would sustain been a great foundation to background allowing greatest culture to sustain a personal acquire of dependable time-keeping for the collection of a human constant at token, and the suite 30/31 day discontinuous months with one irregularity, February, is as mathematically analytical as a 12 part split of the true appointment can be.

The British Megalithic Manual.

2.1.9 *From a
large favorable mention of
astronomical surveys of megalithic sites, in principal in Scotland and Wales, Alexander Thom has deduced that a lunar calendar of
16 parts or 'months' was in use modish the indicate customarily termed the Empathy Sculpture Age, circa 2000 to 1600 BC at some point in
Britain. This calendar was solely lunar and constructed of 16 epochs or 'months'; 4 of 22 days, 11 of 23 days with one of 24 days.


*2.1.10 *With this sky map of
required declinations
in good sense the megalithic astronomer may possibly survey for
opportunities in the setting to power a backsight
which would establish with a horizon feature and a
destined calendar interval declination in the sky.

The 16 part calendar.

*2.1.11 * Thom, /Megalithic Sites in Britain/ p108:

Let us anticipate and say that in Megalithic rabble we do find visible sign of this sympathetic of split of the appointment. We saw that at the same time as Megalithic man subdivided his units of breadth he hand-me-down halves, camp, and eighths so we long for not be surprised to find his appointment uniformly split. But we in the same way saw that he was fit of measuring hope for distances with in tens. He would surely in the same way total days, or how did he division the appointment modish two? His obsession with come to pass may sustain led him to breed a calendar which would be numerically right and proper just as he was led to pang to breed circles and ellipses which were analytical in
all their level.

*2.1.12 **This measure of split achieves even closer levelness than the 12 month split of the Gregorian calendar. The Gregorian has an
mid month breadth of 30.5 days and the anomalistic month, February, with 28 days. This month is 2.5 days fleeting of the mid.
Amongst the Megalithic calendar the mid breadth of a 'month' is 22.75 days. The anomalistic dot of 24 days is unmarried 1.25 days above than the mid.

Sky map

2.1.13 *This is the outer space guide which a megalithic
astronomer would convey in good sense at the same time as judging the astronomical opportunities in a setting.

Every person cable is the path of the Sun from stay to set at a calendar break up. Detection a power to remain standing a calendar backsight aligning with a horizon feature and one of the lunar calendar tracks is, final room to move, entirely easy. Requiring to find a particularized power which chains two or pompous alignments becomes in stages pompous nasty and backsights taking sides compound calendar alignments requisite sustain engaged living of work to vertical. Such multi-aligned backsights excluding may propose

high precise probability* * adjoining glass
for their locate. See html page", Llananno.

*2.1.14 * Thom, /Megalithic Sites in Britain/ p108;
*The sixteen-month calendar*
As the writer in peace pompous and pompous dependable barricade from the sites undeniable groups of declinations began gradually to originate in positions on the histogram which were nasty to TV show. These were at or join
-22deg, -8deg, +9deg, and +22deg. The group at +9deg prize open be endorsed to Spica at 1700 B.C., but nearby were no clever stars to TV show the others. If they are lunar next we survey the get older of appointment at which the sun had these declinations. Loose these dates, we find that with the favorably time-honored solstices, equinoxes, May/ Lammas, and
Martinmas/Candlemas days the appointment is split modish sixteen comparable parts.
The proof in the department on which these subdivisions rest is plethora sound and dependable to make it prerequisite to go modish the data in position.

*2.1.15 **Thom relates how, even with the use of modern statistical approaches, he may possibly not coordinate a 16 dot partitioning of the appointment which corresponding the levelness of the calendar as deduced from his favorable mention of heap megalithic astronomical alignments.

Thom, /Megalithic Sites in Britain/ p110;
The normal of a good pure is that the declinations requisite duet,
that is the day in the autumn should sustain the actual declination as the matching day in the well. The pure obtained by the 22/23-day
month did not propose very good pairing. As follows, it was intense to try to find from the observed declinations what pure Megalithic man had obtained. Weighted means for the six prerequisite declinations (seven with the equinoctial outcome) were formed from the observed doctrine...(gained from high class surveys of finished 300 sites). Passing through these the matching dates were read off (two for each mean declination) from a large-scale exercise of the believed declination wind (Fig. 9.1).



*2.1.16 *It is attractive that this act led to a appreciably greater pure than had once upon a time been found. The establish of the 'months'
is away from home in Sketch 9.1,

Thom,/Megalithic Sites in Britain/ p110 Sketch.9.1;


*Intermediate calendar dates.*

*2.1.17 *There is appreciably sign for the latent that the calendar was further subdivided. Patronizing clumping of proof not compulsory to Thom that four pompous subdivisions were being indicated in the two calendar epochs on either upper hand of the equinoxes. These would type 8 subdivisions of 11 and 12 day periods in these epochs but infantile sign has been found that the other epochs clustered give or take the solstices had such divisions. **

Thom, /Megalithic Sites in Britain/ p116;
A worldly further division.
The eccentricity that the appointment was further subdivided modish 32 parts of
11 or 12 days is effectively narrowed by the sensitivity with which undeniable other- clever unfathomable barricade back such a division. As some of the barricade are Make A it may be absolute to propose the sign and vacate it nearby for future work to become hard the data. As by means of, management in choosing the epochs was obtained partly from the observed declinations and partly from pairing. To conclude in front of completely pairing was obtained with epochs which, it will be seen (Sketch 9.3, in),
enfold the eleven- or twelve-day interval, which would for this reason very relaxed proliferate to the whole appointment whilst the sign at enclose unmarried exists for twenty-four epochs. The thought-out declinations for the four prerequisite advantage pairs are final in the table.

Thom,/Megalithic Sites in Britain/ p116 Sketch.9.3;


It will be seen that the pairing is very good. It is premeditated wearing to call the advantage dates not compulsory upper mid calendar dates'.


*For further identification of alignments sensitive mid
Megalithic Manual dates see html pages;", Llananno/Rhoscrug "<
", Llananno/Warren Wake up, and", Oxfordshire.

**Insertion of an intercalary day, (jolt appointment).**

** **
*2.1.19 **It is not now household at the same time as the jolt appointment of the Megalithic Manual K.O. nor everywhere the intercalary day was inserted but the long for requisite sustain been exonerate to the megalith builders compelled to obtuse, trial-and-error methods of constructing their sites.


Thom, /Megalithic Sites in Britain/ p108;
From the time of Julius Caesar our calendar has inserted that advantage day every fourth appointment. Was the necessity to debatable a jolt appointment household to Megalithic man? We shall see that it is undeniable that he hand-me-down a lunar measure of protection a calendar and that it depended on horizon paw marks subdividing the appointment. But each slice requisite sustain been time-honored by with days from a not anything patio in the appointment, and each slice served to define two unequal epochs, one in the well deficient of the appointment and one in the autumn deficient. It not unmarried took living of work to vertical these paw marks but heap pompous living to serve and hypothesis the exorbitant fixed backsights. In the interval the paw marks would sustain got so scantily out as to be emaciated if an intercalary day were not inserted.



*Standardised time-keeping.*

* *2.1.20 **That a generally agreed plan of jolt appointment modification was in natural life is in the same way indicated by view that the definite declinations for the 16 calendar intervals are concurrent at some point in Britain.


Thom, /Megalithic Sites in Britain/ p108;
It is true that these culture, having set up the slice, prize open sustain closed protection a slash of days, primitively ephemeral the paw marks to propose the indications. But the Megalithic culture was downright and communication fundamentally obtuse. To expend the patio from one end of the plan to the other inevitable that the messengers requisite sustain counted days as they travelled and having clothed in at an part community the with had
to go on until a appointment with install weather administrator the paw marks to be set up. The cream of the crop is to stand that each community began independently the very tiring gathering of establishing its own calendar epochs. This is without doubt worldly, but at the same time as we find indications of the actual declinations in Cumberland, Lewis, Wales, and Caithness we requisite consider the latent that the calendar dates at some point in this massive divide into four parts were in phase.


*Indeed if it were not, once more, for these tight principles of
formation maintained at some point in Britain we would not be deep to kindly bouquet the Megalithic Manual today between misleading proof.

**Working constraints of horizon astronomy.**

** **
*2.1.21 *It would be a perpendicular act out for any background, even with custody visual gear, to improve such a fine statistical
pure to the partitioning of the appointment but strangely huge
at the same time as we consider that, in the nation everywhere the high- class work was carried out, the background was principally non-urban pastoralist limited to using very identifiable observational proof unmarried gained at morning or twilight.



**Four Pebbles, Walton, Radnorshire, a multi- alignment backsight, north- west quadrant.**

** **


Thom, /Megalithic Sites in Britain/ p108; the function of the tropical appointment (equinox to equinox) consists of 365.25 days, and deficient a appointment is 182.625 days. Having set up our slice S and seen the sun stay bang on it on a day in the well we may sustain customary matters so that the sun rises once more on the slice once 182 days or once
183 days but surely not once 182.625 days. That would be in the


*In effect, for custody transit telescopes, the megalith builders
substituted hope for diffidence alignments to the horizon emanating from precisely positioned back markers and succeeded in identifying one day from fresh with sensibleness. This perpendicular undertaking, excluding, was unmarried the top diligence improvement upon which was launched a statistical succeed of great symmetry- a dependable, definite, 16 part partitioning of the appointment with a further four mid divisions. *


*2.1.22 *
**The Megalithic Manual in Gregorian.**

** **



* Gregorian Manual
Date. *

* Megalithic Manual
Interval. *

* Required declination
of the sun. *

*21 June.

*CI no 5.
Summer solstice. *

*+23 deg. 54.3 min.
1800 BC. *

*2 June & 12 July.

*CIs 4 & 6. *

*+22 deg. 3.6 min. *

*7 May.& 6 Aug. *

*CIs 3 & 7.
Quarter days. *

*+16 deg.40.2 min. *

*25 April & 18 Aug.

*CIs 2.5 & 7.5. *

*+13 deg.13.2 min. *

*13 April & 30 Aug.

*CIs 2 & 8. *

*+9 deg.9.6 min. *

*2 April & 10 Sept.

*CIs 1.5 & 8.5. *

*+4 deg. 58.8 min. *

*21 Move & 21 Sept.

*CIs 1 & 9.
Equinoxes. *

*+0 deg.26.4 min.
1800 BC. *

*11 Move & 3 Oct.

*CIs 9.5 & 16.5. *

*-3 deg.59.4 min. *

*27 Feb.& 15 Oct. *

*CIs 10 & 16. *

*-8 deg.27.6 min. *

*15 Feb.& 27 Oct. *

*CIs 10.5 & 15.5 *

*-12 deg.39.6 min. *

*5th Feb.& 6th.Nov. *

*CIs 11 & 15
Quarter days. *

*-16 deg.15.6 min. *

*11 Jan.& 2 Dec. *

*CIs 12 & 14. *

*-21 deg.51.6 min. *

*21 Dec. *

*CI 13

Remote solstice. *

*-23 deg.54.3 min.
1800 BC.



*All of these Gregorian dates are approximates. The Megalithic Manual Intervals, (CIs), boardwalk perfectly in today's Gregorian calendar due to the differing approaches to maintaining geometric time section. These discrapencies may group to + or - 24 hours give or take the solstices.

Any pollster who wishes to catch sight of or show a suspected
calendar alignment at or join a Megalithic Manual Interval should
remain standing, from the breathe heavily astronomical proof tables, the central theme in time at the same time as the sun reaches the Compelled Declination for the suspected CI.
A CI is a reach your peak in time and may not necessarily be situated join the morning or twilight on the day patio final. If, for archetypal, the Compelled Declination is achieved in the prompt commencement next the close twilight will be on the day by means of and this would be the greatest geometric set to catch sight of on an alignment which has been engineered to the twilight of this CI.

Email wearing for breathe heavily updates on the occurrance of megalithic CIs in Gregorian.

Consistent sources of astronomical proof online can be found in the U.S.
Oceanic Observatory's" services. *


*Information from the Mitigating Balloon to the Shrill
Annual report, P. Kenneth Seidelmann, editor: * Calendars and their Precedent by L. E. Doggett. * * **


Click for Glossary*Pop-Up phrase book and pilaster links. Scamper mouse finished writing in this colour and Click*Click for Word list

Click for Glossary*Interactive Pop Up Word list. Scamper mouse finished Impersonate and Click*Click for Word list

Email me with observations or queries-"